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Acknowledgements. Best Management Practices (BMPs) for Bee Health in the Horticultural Industry was created by the Horticultural Research Institute. Development of this document would not have been possible without the cooperation and participation of numerous researchers and experts.
Mission. The mission of the Horticultural Research Institute is to direct, fund, promote and communicate horticultural research, which increases the quality and value of plants, improves the productivity and profitability of the horticulture industry, and protects and enhances the environment.
Introduction. Pollinators as a whole encompass a diverse population of thousands of different species, such as managed honey bees, wild bees, butterflies, birds, and bats. Protection of pollinators in general, especially bees, continues to be a major concern among the general public and within the green industry. Several culprits have been identified as factors contributing to managed honey bee losses, including Varroa mites, other pests/diseases of bees, loss of habitat and nutrition, and off-target effects of pesticides. Alternatively, wild, unmanaged bee populations are most greatly affected by landscape changes and habitat degradation.